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Indian Journal of Transfusion Medicine
  Indian Journal of Transfusion Medicine Indian Journal of Transfusion Medicine

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Inventory Management In Blood Bank

                                                                                   Dr. Jayashree Sharma

                                                                                                                                                        MD

An effective hospital blood inventory management system can reduce the inventory that a hospital needs to keep on hand as well as contribute to lower blood outdate rates.  

The minimum and desired inventory levels that meet the need of patient population should be  etermined. The inventory should be rotated ensuring the shortest outdate units in front of the refrigerator/ freezer.  

If computer systems are available in a hospital, the hospital transfusion service computer system should  enerate a daily report of “soon to outdate” blood components. The report should be posted on the front of the storage refrigerator / freezer  to remind staff to utilize these components first. Whenever possible, only ABO identical red blood cells and plasma products should be provided to patients for transfusion. This will conserve group O red blood cells and AB plasma products for emergency situations.  

To minimize RBC outdates, transfusing “Soon to outdate” Rh negative RBCs to Rh positive patients  hould be considered. Smaller hospitals should consider an arrangement to transfer “Soon to outdate”  BCs to a larger hospital with a higher demand for RBCs. Packing procedures must ensure that the RBCs are maintained at appropriate conditions during transport. A regular inventory count should be done with  rompt resolution of the inventory discrepancies. For hospitals with a transfusion service computer system, this may involve comparing the computer inventory count to a manual inventory count. 

MSBOS- Maximum Surgical Blood Order Schedule should be established which is based on the  ospital’s past surgical blood use and serves as a guideline for future surgical blood requests. 

Group and screen policy should be considered for patients where red blood cells are ordered but are likely to be required for transfusion. This will minimize the red blood cell inventory that is cross matched/ labeled for patients and is unavailable for use by other patients 

 There should be a cancellation policy that returns red blood cells to an “available” inventory as soon as  he potential need for a transfusion is passed. Cross match to transfusion (C: T) ratios should be  onitored. A target C: T ratio of less than 2 is considered acceptable. Guidelines for autologous blood donation hould be established. 

If hospital routinely transfuses platelets, an inventory of platelets in hand should be maintained. This may assist in minimizing the need for orders  from outside the hospital. If a hospital is at a significant distance (>1-2 hours drive) from the blood supplier, and the hospital’s patient population includes patients thatquire platelets in urgent situations, it is advisable to keep a dose of platelets in hand. Inventory  anagement for blood platelets is a challenging task due to platelet’s extremely short product life cycle, high unit roduction cost, limited pool of platelet donors, and high demand uncertainty. 

Emergency and disaster situations require a rapid and timely response by the transfusion services. There should be timely provision of safe blood and inventory of blood bank personnel should be intained.Monsoon related illnesses like Leptospirosis, Malaria and Dengue require platelet transfusions ue to thrombocytopenia and bleeding. Hence, the requirement for platelets increases during monsoons. All the Blood Transfusion Services should maintain adequate stock of platelets during monsoons so that it can be given to any patient and not just restrict to in-house hospital patients. However, when the demand for platelets is less, platelets  

units may outdate i.e. expire without being transfused, due to mismatches between supply and demand. Hence, it is essential to optimize platelet inventory management.

In case of disaster, an inventory of blood bank personnel should be maintained. The ommunication systems of the blood bank and transfusion services should be well organized. It should be ensured that the information is transmitted about the need for and inventory of immediately available blood and blood components. Blood collection should be planned in accordance with the needs.

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Dr. JAYASHREE SHARMA
MD
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